*Today’s presentation by eight year old Mr. *Raumaan Ahmad Kidwai **at Thinkers Forum meeting was amazing. He spoke about fundamentals of force, Newtons’ theory of Gravity, Einstein’s theory of Relativity, Quantum physics, Black Hole and string theory. It was not memorizing the formulas and just recite them, but this gifted child has the full concept of these difficult topics and answered questions about the significance and applications of these concepts. **

**The above article is partially related to what we discussed in the Forum meeting today.Today’s participant at the meeting may enjoy it reading and may be easier to understand it after listening to Mr. Rauman. May be in another meeting we ask Raumann to shed light on these 17 formulas who changed the course of humanity. ( F. Sheikh)**

Mathematician Ian Stewart’s recent book “In Pursuit of the Unknown: 17 Equations That Changed the World” takes a close look at some of the most important equations of all time.

A great example of the human impact of math is the financial crisis. Black Scholes, number 17 on this list, is a derivative pricing equation that played a role.

“It’s actually a fairly simple equation, mathematically speaking,” Professor Stewart told Business Insider. “What caused trouble was the complexity of the system the mathematics was intended to model.”

Numbers have power. In this case, people depended on a theoretical equation too seriously and overreached its assumptions.

Without the equations on this list, we wouldn’t have GPS, computers, passenger jets, or countless inventions in between.

The Pythagorean Theorem

**What does it mean: **The square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the SUM of the squares of its legs.

**History: **Attributed to Pythagoras, it isn’t certain that he first proved it. The first clear proof came from Euclid, and it is possible the concept was known 1000 years before Pythoragas by the Babylonians.

**Importance: **The equation is at the core of geometry, links it with algebra, and is the foundation of trigonometry. Without it, accurate surveying, mapmaking, and navigation would be impossible.

**Modern use: **Triangulation is used to this day to pinpoint relative location for GPS navigation.

*Source: In Pursuit of the Unknown: 17 Equations That Changed the World*

## The logarithm and its identities

**What does it mean: **You can multiply numbers by adding related numbers.

**History: **The initial concept was discovered by the Scottish Laird John Napier of Merchiston in an effort to make the multiplication of large numbers, then incredibly tedious and time consuming, easier and faster. It was later refined by Henry Briggs to make reference tables easier to calculate and more useful.

**Importance: **Logarithms were revolutionary, making calculation faster and more accurate for engineers and astronomers. That’s less important with the advent of computers, but they’re still an essential to scientists.

**Modern use: **Logarithms still inform our understanding of radioactive decay.

*Source: In Pursuit of the Unknown: 17 Equations That Changed the World*

## The fundamental theorem of calculus

**What does it mean?: **Allows the calculation of an instantaneous rate of change.

**History: **Calculus as we currently know it was described around the same in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. There was a lengthy debate over plagiarism and priority which may never be resolved. We use the leaps of logic and parts of the notation of both men today.

**Importance:** According to Stewart,** **“More than any other mathematical technique, it has created the modern world.” Calculus is essential in our understanding of how to measure solids, curves, and areas. It is the foundation of many natural laws, and the source of differential equations.

**Modern use: **Any mathematical problem where an optimal solution is required. Essential to medicine, economics, and computer science.

*Source: In Pursuit of the Unknown: 17 Equations That Changed the World*

## Newton’s universal law of gravitation

**What does it mean?: **Calculates the force of gravity between two objects.

**History: **Isaac Newton derived his laws with help from earlier work by Johannes Kepler. He also used, and possibly plagiarized the work of Robert Hooke.

**Importance: **Used techniques of calculus to describe how the world works. Even though it was later supplanted by Einstein’s theory of relativity, it is still essential for practical description of how objects interact with each other. We use it to this day to design orbits for satellites and probes.

**Value: **When we launch space missions, the equation is used to find optimal gravitational “tubes” or pathways so they can be as energy efficient as possible. Also makes satellite TV possible.

*Source: In Pursuit of the Unknown: 17 Equations That Changed the World*

## The origin of complex numbers

**What does it mean?:** The square of an imaginary number is negative. ** **

**History: **Imaginary numbers were originally posited by famed gambler/mathematician Girolamo Cardano, then expanded by Rafael Bombelli and John Wallis. They still existed as a peculiar, but essential problem in math until William Hamilton described this definition.

**Importance:** According to Stewart** **“…. most modern technology, from electric lighting to digital cameras could not have been invented without them.” Imaginary numbers allow for complex analysis, which allows engineers to solve practical problems working in the plane.

**Modern use: **Used broadly in electrical engineering and complex mathematic theory.

*Source: In Pursuit of the Unknown: 17 Equations That Changed the World*

## Euler’s formula for polyhedra

**What does it mean?: **Describes a space’s shape or structure regardless of alignment.

**History: **The relationship was first described by Descartes, then refined, proved, and published by Leonhard Euler in 1750.

**Importance:** Fundamental to the development of topography, which extends geometry to any continuous surface. An essential tool for engineers and biologists.

**Modern use: **Topography is used to understand the behavior and function of DNA.

*Source: In Pursuit of the Unknown: 17 Equations That Changed the World*

Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/17-equations-that-changed-the-world-2013-1?op=1#ixzz2XkMz0kmx

Posted By F. Sheikh