The Ehtisham Review-Neo-Imperialism-3-Occupation
The two world wars, especially the second one,
weakened the grip of colonial powers. Britain sought an honorable way out
and managed it to some extent. The Dutch tried to hang on to Indonesia,
but were driven away. The French, unable to hang on to Vietnam, let the
Domino theory oriented U.S. to fight and end up in a humiliating defeat.
The French struggled in Algeria too, but De Gaulle came to rescue.Â Most
of the rest of the colonies went the same way.Â
Colonialism has been replaced by occupation of abstract space, under which
International Financial Institutions (IFI) and
MNCs function. The Third World countries have been granted sovereignty on
paper. The West controls over 80% of the resources of the world.Â Â (39).
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The US initiated the process in Cuba in the late
nineteenth century when it drove Spain out of Cuba. Though the country had
its own flag, constitution, currency and an army, all major foreign policy
decisions were made by the U.S. The US also kept in its hands sugar,
tobacco, tourism and nearly all foreign trade.Â (40).Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
Â The newly sovereign states did enjoy legitimacy among its people. But
the governments which tried to wrest control of its resources were
subjected to military coups-Iran, Indonesia and many other countries.
South Africa was able to overthrow the dictatorship of the minority, but
had to let the minority have continued control of business, finance and
industry.(41).Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The leaders were allowed revolutionary
slogans as long as they did not act on them and collaborated with
Neo-imperialism.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The leaders of the new nations may
voice revolutionary slogans, yet they find themselves locked into the
Global Capitalist Orbit, cooperating perforce with the First World nations
for investment, trade, and aid. So we witnessed the curious phenomenon of
leaders of newly independent Third World nations denouncing imperialism as
the source of their countries' ills, while dissidents in these countries
denounced these same leaders as collaborators of imperialism.
Independence was allowed in most instances when a comprador
class had been created, which would collaborate with the colonial power in
turning the country into a client state.
Most of the Third World consists of client states in which Foreign Direct
Investment (FDI) is permitted on terms favorable to investors.
Corporations get cheap labor, subsidies and raw material. In a client
state, corporate investors enjoy direct subsidies and land grants, access
to raw materials and cheap labor, low, if any taxes, and subservient labor
unions, no occupational safety measures, no minimum wage, no restriction
on child labor and no consumer or environmental safety measures. Â (42).Â
The Third World offers the life to capitalists what
colonies did to rulers in the nineteenth century. The collaborators enjoy
opportunities to line their pockets with the foreign aid sent by the West.
Security forces are armed and trained by the United States in the latest
technologies of terror and repression. But independence even though only
on paper, kindles the aspiration to real independence. Once in a while
emerges a national leader, as in Venezuela or Bolivia, who manages to
extract power from corporate rulers. But more often, they lose their life
viz Allende of Chile.Â (43).
Â Bibliography and
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15Â 34.Â http://www.unicef.org/pon95/chil0016.htmlÂ 35. ibid 15Â 36. ibid
15Â 37.Â Easterly, William â€œThe White Man's Burden: Why the West's
Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Goodâ€Â (New
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Joseph E, "Globalization and Its Discontents," (New York: W.W. Norton and
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Tropical Playgroundâ€ (Layton, UT. Publisher Gibbs Smith,
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43.Â Harmer, TanyaÂ â€œÂ Allende's Chile and the Inter-American Cold
Warâ€ (Greensboro, NC. University of North Carolina Press, 2011).
Dr. S. Akhtar Ehtisham
All religions try to take over the establishment and if they fail, they
collaborate with it, be it feudal or capitalist.